Racial profiling in traffic enforcement is pervasive throughout America. Despite high-profile investigations that long ago revealed how law enforcement agencies intentionally target black and Latino drivers, racial bias in traffic stops persists.
The racial disparities are also apparent in enforcement against people walking or biking. A recent Seattle Times investigation found a wildly disproportionate number of jaywalking tickets were issued to black people. And the Tampa Bay Times reported that 79 percent of bike tickets were issued to black residents, who comprise 25 percent of the city’s population. These practices deter people of color from bicycling, as research from Charles Brown at Rutgers University has shown.